PhilSPEN Online Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

(Article 50 | POJ_0045)

Thesis Abstract

The Effect of Television Advertisements on the Food Choices and Nutritional Status of Selected Preschoolers in lbaan, Batangas

Abstract | Introduction | Methodology | Results | Conclusion | Back to Total Names Codes

Submitted: March 2012

AUTHOR: Juvelyn J. Magadia, RND, MSCN

INSTITUTION WHERE STUDY WAS DONE: Philippine Women's Univeristy, Metro-Manila, Philippines



This study was conceptualized because the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition took note of the fact that faulty food choice is one of the major causes of malnutrition in the country. Overweight and obesity shouid no longer be ignored at this time, although prevalence rotes are not as high as underweight, because of the health risks in later life.


The descriptive type of research was used in the study. Questionnaires were distributed to the respondents and the 3-day food recall was also used to determine the adequacy of nutrient intake. To clarify and validate the answers of the respondents, Focus Group Discussion was employed in the study. For the statistical results; frequency, percentage, mean, ranking, chi squared and Pearson - r were used in analyzing the data.


Profile of study population:

  • Age: mean age of the subjects was 5 and the largest group of the subjects belonged to age 3 years.
  • BMI:
    • preschoolers was compared to the WHO Child Growth Standards 2008􀀑 1 was severely wasted; 1 was wasted, 76 were normal, 11 were overweight and there were 9 obese preschoolers.
  • Adequacy of Nutrient Intake Based on the 3 - day.
    • Protein, Iron, Iodine were excellently. met by the preschoolers.
    • Energy, Vitamin C, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin and Folate were adequately met.
    • On the other hand, preschoolers intake of Vitamin A and Calcium were inadequately met.
  • Profile of Parents
    • Almost half of the parents belonged to 31 to 40 age bracket, females and most of them were high school and college graduates.
    • The common occupation of the respondents belonged to the blue collar and white collar jobs.
    • The monthly income of most families ranged from Pl 0, 001.00 to P 15, OQ0.00 and mostly they were supporting 2 children.

Television Viewing Practices of Preschoolers

  • Most of the preschoolers spent l to 2 hours in watching TV a day and they were usually accompanied by their mothers.
  • The common viewing time was from 7:00 a.m. to 9 a.m. and cartoons or anime were the favorite TV shows among the children.
  • During program break they often see milk or energy drink commercial and most of the preschoolers remembered the jingles or tag lines used in the commercials and imitated it by dancing, singing and reciting it.

Effect of Television Advertisements on the Food Choices in terms of:

  • Food Requests.
    • Half of the parents encouraged the children to be involved in the menu planning and the children requested for food items to be included in their daily meals.
    • Most of the preschoolers mcide requests to buy certain brand of foods that were shown on the commercials during program breaks.
    • The children also repeatedly request to buy the advertised foods even if it were unfamiliar to them. However, peer pressure was not effective in persuading the child to buy food items not shown on TV.
  • Actual Purchase.
    • Most of the parents bought the requested food items of their child; often give in to buy the advertised item, but did not buy more than what was requested by the preschoolers.
    • The parents checked the nutrition information on the package of the advertised foods and most of them understood it.
    • The parents did not buy the advertised foods that were low in the essential nutrients needed by the body.
  • Consumption and Frequency of Consumption of the Advertised Food.
    • Most of the preschoolers ate the advertised food; consumed it on a daily basis, but not more than once a day.
  • Summary of the Effects of Television Advertisements on the Food Choices and Food Brands.
    • In the category of high fat foods, fast food commercials were the most viewed, most requested to purchase and most consumed among others.
    • Among the brands cited were Jollibee and McDonalds.
    • For high sugar category, chocolate commercials were the most seen, most requested to purchase and consumed often by the preschoolers.
    • Potato snacks and chips were the top favorites of the children among the high salt category of foods. Those were often viewed in commercials, often requested and often ┬Ěconsumed by the preschoolers.

The Effects of Television Advertisements on the Food Choices and Nutritional Status

  • Relationship between Television Viewing Practices and the Food Choices of Preschoolers.
    • The number of hours spent in watching TV has a significant relationship with the food request that the children made.
    • On the other hand there was no significant relationship that was seen between the food choices and the companions that looked ofter the children while watching TV; the viewing time, and the frequently watched shows by the preschoolers.
    • There was also a significant relationship between the tog lines or jingle used- in the commercial to the actual requests that the children do.
  • Relationship between Television Viewing Pradices and Nutritional Status/ BMI of the Preschoolers.
    • There was a significant relationship that existed between the frequently shown television commercials seen by he children and the Body Mass Index of the preschoolers'.
    • There was also a significant relationship that existed between the tag lines and jingles of the commercial remembered by the preschoolers' and their Body Mass Index.
    • Relationship between the effect of TV advertisements on the food choices and Nutritional Status.
      • There was no significant relationship between the effects of television advertisements on food choices in terms of request, purchase, consumption and frequency of consumption to the nutritional status/Body Mass Index (BMI) of the preschoolers.


  • Most of the preschoolers were found to be normal in their nutritional status, but the number of malnourished children in the area_ is still considered a significant malnutrition problem..
  • Parents have knowledge in nutrition and act as gatekeepers in the right foods they are giving on their children.
  • Television advertisements affect the food choices of the preschoolers in terms of: request, purchase, consumption and frequency of consumption of the advertised foods.
  • Television advertisements did not affect the nutritional status of the preschoolers.


Abstract | Introduction | Methodology | Results | Conclusion | Back to Total Names Codes